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Inside the Sliderock Lookout!

Discovering what it means to be a lookout! And more about Sliderock Lookout

This weekend, from June 27th through the 29th, Darby, Montana will be hosting the annual Forest Fire Lookout Association’s Western Regional Conference—perfect timing as we dive deeper into Fort Missoula’s own historic lookout with a real lookout as our guide! This afternoon, my friend Allison Linville swung by Fort Missoula on her way home from Hamilton, where she currently works dispatch for wild land fire after four years of working as a lookout. We walked out onto the grounds and headed for the Forestry exhibition, which includes a small shack dedicated to the history of the timber industry (My favorite part of that one? A picture of workers posing outside the Tom Cruise Mine), the Miller Creek Guard Cabin (ca. 1910) and the Sliderock Lookout (1933)—both of which I mentioned briefly in my last post about smokejumping. We climbed the lookout tower, constructed of four beams and a set of wooden stairs, to the square cabin perched on top. The cabin is surrounded on all sides by big windows meant to show the entire horizon, each one guarded from the sun by wood shutters functioning as awnings. I asked Allison about pulling the shutters down to protect the lookout windows, but she said that only very rarely would you close the shutters. As a lookout, your top priority is watching the weather and the changing landscape, so naturally you want your windows up.

Sliderock Lookout at Fort Missoula

Sliderock Lookout at Fort Missoula

“In order to be a lookout, you really have to love maps and weather,” Allison says. We’re standing on the catwalk watching the clouds move eastward towards Mt. Sentinel. To the north, we can just make out the snow-covered Mission Mountains, to the south, Lolo Peak is dappled in shadow. Over the course of ten minutes, the landscape changes: the wind changes, the patches of light and dark shift, the clouds open up and the sky emerges. As I mentioned in my previous post, Allison worked at a remote lookout in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, where she did not have any access to internet, electricity or cell phone reception. I say that I imagine that watching the weather change would be like a lookout’s version of reality TV. Allison laughs and says, “Sure, but remember that most lookouts have internet and electricity and cell phone reception now. Not mine, but a lot of the others aren’t as remote.”

Even the radio isn’t a great source of personal connection. When a lookout talks on their radio, anyone tuned into that radio frequency can hear them: the dispatchers, the firefighters, other lookouts, even friends in town who happen to be listening, which means that talk must be kept professional and to the point. “To be a lookout, you need to have a really deep understanding of fire behavior, but probably the other most important qualifications is being able to communicate effectively and succinctly. To know what is important to communicate and to know what isn’t important—when you should stay silent.” If you’re on top of a mountain, like Allison was, your radio waves will reach pretty much everyone.

Inside the Sliderock Lookout!

Inside the Sliderock Lookout!

Inside, the Sliderock Lookout is fairly sparse. There’s a small, wood-burning stove for cooking, a few cabinets—one of them containing a First Aid kit and a snakebite kit—the Osborn in the center of the room, with an old fashioned telephone that would presumably connect the lookout to dispatch, and a bed in the corner flanked by a water container. “Water is a huge issue when you’re a lookout. Sometimes you’ll have a spring nearby you can hike down to, but other times they just have to pack water up to you on mules, at least if you’re in the wilderness. I didn’t have a spring, but I had access to a huge snow bank until about mid-July. A good chunk of time was dedicated to hiking down to the snow, packing up my USFS canvas bags with as much snow as I could carry, allowing it to melt in gallon jugs, and then filtering it the next day. Then, of course, I’d go back for more, always carrying my radio.” (In land designated as wilderness, wheels are prohibited, so pack animals are the only way to get supplies in.)

The First Aid Kit in Sliderock Lookout.

The First Aid Kit in Sliderock Lookout.

A typical day for Allison consisted of a 7:00 am wake up followed by a quick run. She would make breakfast and listen to NPR on an old school radio before taking the weather at 9:00. “Does taking the weather just mean looking around and saying, it’s cloudy?” I ask, reminding myself that the only dumb question is the one that isn’t asked. She looks at me like I’m crazy. “No,” she says. Apparently there’s a lot more to it! Every lookout is supplied with a belt weather kit, which includes a wind gauge and a sling psychrometer, with which you can take temperature and relative humidity. “The digital ones just aren’t as reliable,” she explains, further convincing me that living at a lookout is like stepping back into history. “At 10 am, every lookout calls in their weather to dispatch. Winds, temperature, relative humidity, visibility, cloud cover. Precipitation and lightning over the past twenty four hours.” After calling in the weather, Allison would hang out and watch for fires, carefully scanning the horizon in every direction every 15 to 20 minutes. She would write, read, listen to NPR, do creative projects, go for walks (again, always with her radio), and my favorites—do lunges around the lookout and hold solo dance parties.

That sounds like a pretty simple day, but Allison went on to describe the responsibility that lookouts have when crews are actually fighting fires—something that I hadn’t even thought of! “Later in the summer, you have crews on the ground and that is a huge responsibility for lookouts. As a lookout, you’re responsible for crew safety and monitoring the weather. They are down in the thick of things, so you’re their eyes from up above, watching for changes in wind direction and erratic fire movement. You need to have a really thorough understanding of fire behavior and the different types of clouds. Then you can radio down to the incident commander on the ground as well as your supervisor.” Sometimes, smoke obscures the landscape so much that even the lookout has trouble monitoring the fire behavior. Allison told me one story in which she knew a friend was in a cabin monitoring a fire in the valley, but the valley was so smoke-y that neither of them could really see; Allison couldn’t get eyes on the base of the fire, so she couldn’t describe the movement of the flames. She saw a huge plume of smoke rise above the low-lying smoke, so she knew the fire was active but she couldn’t quite see the direction or speed of the spread. Talk about a high-pressure job!

Allison at her lookout in the Bob Marshall Wilderness

Allison at her lookout in the Bob Marshall Wilderness

After our tour, I went back to the archives to uncover more about Sliderock Lookout. How did the Fort Missoula acquire it, for instance? And how the heck did they get it to Fort Missoula? I pulled out a file about an inch and a half thick, full of correspondence about the Sliderock Lookout. Boy, was this file an eye opener! Like so many other Fort Missoula visitors, I always took the lookout for granted—I thought it was cool, but I didn’t give much thought to the effort it took to erect it.

Sliderock Lookout was designed by Clyde Fickes, a Montana-based Forest Ranger whose career with the USFS spanned 37 years and covered the most formative years of the service, beginning in 1907 under Theodore Roosevelt’s administration. In 1972, Fickes wrote a book about his experiences, which range from fighting fire during heavy fire seasons; hunting elk poachers in the frigid winter of 1916-1917; repeatedly getting mistaken for a German spy while counting agricultural livestock for a census done in 1917 (“another boondoggle generated by war hysteria,” he calls it); surviving the year of the yellow jackets (“There were millions of them. Men were stung on the lips and face while trying to eat—bite into a slice of bread and there would be a dozen yellow jackets trying to beat you to it.”); and many, many more. In 1927, he was moved from the Nezperce Forest to Sandpoint, Idaho, where he came up with the design of the 12’ x 12’ pop-up lookout, lookouts that were constructed of various parts and then packed up to the lookout sites as kits, where they could be easily reconstructed. Here’s how he describes the process:

“Each individual piece was shown and numbered on the plans. Detailed instructions accompanied the plans as to the procedure to be followed in erecting the building. Millwork, such as window sash and door, were all standard millwork which could be purchased in any lumberyard along with the hardware. No item needed special fabrication. Then it was decided to build a sample to prove out the plans. At a lumberyard in Missoula, I made arrangements to purchase the materials, and for a place to cut the material. I hired two carpenters to do the cutting, and I did some of the work myself. The bundled material was hauled down to the Lolo Forest and packed up to the top of Mt. Baldy, a lookout point on the Superior Ranger Distrcit. Then Joe Halm and I went up to the Lookout and put the building together, using only a hammer, screwdriver, and carpenter’s level. The total cost of less than $400.”

This is what Sliderock Lookout looked like before Clyde Fickes came on the scene (ca. 1921).

This is what Sliderock Lookout looked like before Clyde Fickes came on the scene (ca. 1921).

The following year, Fickes and his family moved to Missoula. That year, the 12’ x 12’ standard readicut lookout became a 14’ x 14’ readicut lookout: “…there was a lot of discussion of the ways and means to improve fire discovery, which involved keeping the lookouts comfortable and, by all means, on top of the lookout point… Why not build a 14’ x 14’ house where the lookout would be seeing all the time?” And thus we arrived at the design for the Sliderock Lookout, which was likely packed in using mules and then put together by the lookout himself or Civilian Conservation Corps members. If you want to check out Fickes’ autobiographical account of the USFS, do it here: http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/Publications/region/1/fickes/index.aspx

So now we know how the lookout was originally constructed, but how was it moved from its location in Clinton, Montana, at an elevation of 7,820, with limited four-wheel drive vehicle access, to Fort Missoula? Judging by the correspondence at Fort Missoula alone, it was quite a process. Members of the Society of American Foresters headed up a task force in association with the Friends of Fort Missoula to acquire the abandoned lookout—which meant dealing not only with the physical challenges of transporting such a structure, but also convincing the National Register of Historic Places that it was a good move to do so. In a letter to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, sent in August of 1983, Forest Supervisor Orville Daniels explains why transporting Sliderock Lookout to Fort Missoula was the best viable option: “Its use as a permanent exhibit and interpretative structure will ensure long term maintenance. Also, it will be readily accessible to a much greater number of the general public.” Another document points out that the deteriorating lookout at Sliderock Mountain was a potential hazard and even a liability for the Forest Service if left on the mountain, since it was accessible by vehicle and sat atop a 45’ wooden tower.

Transporting the Sliderock Lookout floor in September 1983

Transporting the Sliderock Lookout floor in September 1983

Ideally, the SAF task force wanted to move the entire structure intact using a heavy-lift helicopter, but that proved impossible when there was no available helicopter. Even if there had been, “The records indicated the total weight of the items packed in was slightly more than the helicopter could lift” anyway (The Montana Champion, Dec. 1983). The next option was to remove the lookout from Sliderock Mountain using a heavy-duty crane and 2-ton trucks for transport, taking one piece at a time. Windows, shutters, and furniture came out first. Then the roof came off on September 17, 1983, followed by the walls, the cabin floor, the catwalk, and the support beams. Of course, following all of that effort on the mountain, the entire lookout had to be reconstructed back at the Fort. It took until July 4, 1985 until the finishing touches were added and it was finally ready for the public!

If you want to learn more about the fascinating world of lookouts and forest fires, check out the FFLA’s Conference in Darby at http://www.firelookout.org/. Anyone curious about lookouts is invited to attend!

And of course, come on by Fort Missoula to check out Sliderock Lookout and the Miller Guard Cabin next door!

Sliderock Lookout before it was removed from its previous post on Sliderock Mountain.

Sliderock Lookout before it was removed from its previous post on Sliderock Mountain.

Bob Marshall Lookout (Allison's)

Touring the Smokejumper Base Today!

It’s mid June and the Smokejumper Base is bustling with preparatory activity.  I popped over there for a tour this morning and saw men at sewing machines stitching together equipment for the jumps, others airing out used parachutes—checking them for damage—and one smokejumper saying goodbye to his wife and baby daughter before heading down to Arizona, where fire season is already underway.  Over the course of this week alone, there have been tourists from Germany, France, Australia, and Bhutan, and then of course some of our fellow states—Wyoming, New Jersey, California, for instance.  There’s really never a dull moment at the base.  It’s like watching history in action, and every time I passed a smokejumper it felt a little bit like seeing Mickey Mouse when I went to Disneyworld as a kid, except that these guys (and girls—10% of the approximately 400 smokejumpers working in the US are women!) are national heroes and tremendous athletes.  They understand the way that fire moves in a way that I never could—sounds kind of like magic.  So, let’s dive into the smokejumper base tour and take another look at Fort Missoula’s own historic fire lookout!

Before the tour began, I spent a few minutes poking around the mock lookout in the Visitors’ Center.  It was intimate—a simple bed, a small wood stove, narrow tables to store food and books, glass windows circling the entire room—and it felt familiar, probably because it reminds me of my friend Allison’s lookout in the Bob Marshall Wilderness.  I’ve never seen the lookout where she spent the last four summers (it’s a 30 mile hike just to get there, and then of course a 30 mile hike to get out again), but the pictures are spectacular and I’ve heard stories about it.  Talk about beautiful isolation!  I know that she used to mark the windows with dry erase markers during thunderstorms, so that she could track the lightning.  That way, she would know where to watch for smoke and then she’d track the smoke on the Osborn, a circular map in the center of every lookout with a device that enables the lookout to locate the fire and call it in using exact location markers.  Here’s a picture of her lookout – pretty spectacular!

Bob Marshall Lookout (Allison's)

Once Fire Management decides to fight a wild land fire and the Jump Base gets the phone call, the smokejumpers have a total of ten minutes to stop whatever it is they’re doing, get to the Ready Room, throw on all of their gear and board the plane before it takes off.  If you think that seems like plenty of time, you might want to check out Manny, the Smokejumper manikin at the Visitors’ Center.  He’s dressed in full jump gear—including a Kevlar suit, which is fire-proof and puncture-proof (in case Manny lands in a thicket of branches), a helmet with a cage over his face, a parachute, a back-up parachute, climbing spurs for climbing trees, 250 yards of rope, an emergency fire resistant shelter and a pack of other supplies.  The Kevlar suits are just used for the jump; once on the ground, the smokejumpers wear nomex shirts and pants—fire resistant, but not fireproof.  Even the fire shelters, developed by scientists, are not perfectly fireproof and they can’t save every life.  The tents—made of aluminum foil and fiberglass—can withstand 500° of radial heat, but they can’t withstand direct flames.  Caylin, our tour guide, pointed out that the Granite Mountain Hot Shots who died in Arizona last year had deployed the shelters as a last ditch safety measure, but that the fire was burning at 2000°.

After our preliminary introduction, we moved on into the Manufacturing Room, where the Smokejumpers make their own Kevlar suits (one suit might take about a week to finish) and other gear.  Smokejumping is an amalgamation of skills and some of them are more humble than you’d imagine!  Garrett, for instance, was sewing radio holsters together, but he’s also jumped in over 70 fires since he started at the base in 2001.  I guess it’s not all guts and glory!

Parachute Loft (Smokejumper Base)

The Parachute Loft

In the next room, the Parachute Tower, two smokejumpers were laying out a used parachute to carefully check for any damages.  Generally, they will hang the parachutes from the ceiling to allow them to dry and to let any debris fall out.  If there are damages to a parachute, it will be sent to the next room—the Parachute Loft—for repairs.  The parachute loft was the busiest room today, filled with long tables for packing the ‘chutes.  Smokejumpers generally pack their own parachutes, but in order to do so, they have to first successfully pack 20 parachutes and 20 back-up parachutes, which are inspected by a master rigger.  To achieve master rigger status, they have to back another 100 parachutes.  That’s a lot of hours!  Here’s a fun holdover from history: each parachute is re-packed every 180 days as a safety measure.  The parachutes, now nylon, were once made of silk, so the smokejumpers had to periodically check them for moth holes as well as any tears that developed along the folds.  Probably my favorite part of the Parachute Loft, though, was the taxidermy.  Caylin told us that the wives of the smokejumpers didn’t want the taxidermy at home, so the guys stored it in the loft.  She admitted that the story might be apocryphal, so be warned before you spread that rumor!

The last stop on our tour was the Ready Room, which basically looks like a locker room but instead of football helmets and shoulder pads, you’ve got intense fire resistant boots, Kevlar suits, parachutes, enough dry food for two to three days, and other equipment (including a helmet that may or may not function like a football helmet).  Instead of stickers that say “Go Griz!” you’ve got bumper stickers that say “I LOVE SPAM,” an enormous thank you card from an elementary school, and a flyer for specially priced massages for smokejumpers.  Instead of a tunnel to the turf, the EXIT leads to the tarmac, where one of three planes would be waiting to take the smokejumpers into the fire.  Sometimes, the planes are there for visitors to see, but today they were in the hangar….bummer!

The Ready Room

The Ready Room

After taking off from the Smokejumping Base (in my car, sadly, not the Sherpa, or the Twin Otter, or even the slower DC-3 plane used to carry smokejumpers from the base) I headed back to Fort Missoula to check out the lookout on the grounds here.  The Sliderock Lookout was built in 1933—which seems to be kind of the heyday of lookout construction—and was subsequently moved from Lolo National Forest in 1983.  Visitors are welcome to walk up the rickety stairs and take a look inside, where you can see the Osborn situated prominently in the middle of the room.  On a high shelf, there are cans of food, including SPAM.  It seems like SPAM is a pretty long tradition in the Forest Service.  In fact, every year there is a competition among the rookies at the base to see who can develop the best SPAM-based recipe.  I don’t know about you, but I would definitely lose that one.  Apparently a woman won with SPAM sushi last year!

Miller Creek Guard Cabin (built circa 1910) is just next to the lookout and it contains a brief history of the Forest Service Lookouts and early photographs owned by the USDA.  The lookout system developed as a reaction to the devastating fire of 1910 and by the 1920s, the familiar one-room lookouts were popping up across the western United States.  A highlight, for me, was recognizing the St. Mary lookout cabin from an old black and white photo!  Here’s a picture I took of that cabin last summer (with the windows boarded up), and here’s the one from the 1960’s:

St. Mary's Peak Lookout (2013)St. Mary's Peak Lookout (1960's)

I hope you enjoyed this little synopsis of the Smokejumper Base tour!  Even more importantly, I hope you can make it out to Fort Missoula and to the base to check out the history and the living history of smokejumping for yourself.  Stay tuned to find out what it’s like to man a lookout today and to explore some of our archival material on the Great Fire of 1910!

Sliderock Lookout at Fort Missoula (1931)

Sliderock Lookout at Fort Missoula

 

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Inaugurating the Smokejumper Base, 1954

Summer is here and that means the start of fire season.  Missoula saw epic snowfall this year, which I hope means that the forest fires will be pretty moderate (is nonexistent asking too much?).  Friends who work for the forest service, however, like the adrenaline rush of fire season and of course, there are other perks, aside from employment—wiping out beetle kill, for instance, and clearing the way for new forest growth.  All in all, though, I’ll admit I don’t know that much about fighting forest fires and thus I decided to kick off this summer by visiting the Smoke Jumper Center, where my friend Caylin works as a tour guide.

A Smokejumper and his Plane, Fort Missoula Photo

Smokejumper and Plane, Ft Missoula Photo

Before heading out there, I got my hands dirty in the Fort Missoula archives.  Not literally—dirty hands are antithetical to archival material—but I like going into new experiences with some kind of grounding.  I always find that the more I know about something, the more curious I am to uncover all of its deepest, darkest secrets.

So…to the archives!

Fort Missoula houses one of the original programs distributed to guests on the day the Smokejumper Base was dedicated, September 22, 1954.  Do the math—that makes this year the diamond anniversary of the base, or the “Aerial Fire Depot”!  Construction began in the fall of 1952, but Missoula was a center for smokejumping even before Congress authorized the $700,000 for a new base.  In fact, the previous year saw the release of “Red Skies of Montana,” a 20th Century Fox movie about the 1949 Mann Gulch Fire, a fire that killed 12 smokejumpers.  Filmed in Missoula, the movie featured real smokejumpers as extras.

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The dedication program itself is pretty basic: a single sheet of paper folded in half, printed on both sides.  On the front of the leaflet, we’re presented with a sketch of an aerial view of the base—very simple geometric buildings with flat roofs, one crowned by what looks like a wide smokestack but what is in fact the parachute tower, all surrounded by fifteen or so scattered trees.  The lower half of the page gives the basic information, everything you might expect on a title page:

DEDICATION PROGRAM

SMOKEJUMPERS’ BASE – AERIAL FIRE DEPOT

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FOREST SERVICE

MISSOULA, MONTANA

SEPTEMBER 22, 1954

Cool!  Already, I’ve learned that the USFS is part of the Department of Agriculture.  The bifolium opens up to a map of the grounds drawn horizontally across the entire leaf.  To the west, there are three major buildings—the warehouse, the dormitory, and the parachute loft—and the “fire truck ambulance wrecker.”  There’s an announcer platform, a refreshment stand, restrooms and even a first aid tent put up for the enormous crowd of 30,000 spectators.  To the east, at the end of the drive into the base, there is the President’s Stand.

Which leads me to perhaps the most exciting part of the program.  President Eisenhower actually flew in to the Smokejumper Base to give the dedication address!   September 22, 1954, in fact, was so carefully scripted that the program specifies the arrival of the Presidential plane at 5:45 pm and the departure of the plane at 6:40 pm.  During his hour on the ground, Eisenhower became the first and only President to be inducted as an honorary smokejumper, which seems appropriate as the USFS expanded significantly under his leadership.

Of course, there were other many things going on that day.  Tours were conducted in the afternoon, followed by an air show and a 4:00 presentation of “smokejumpers in action” (both of which were probably much cooler than the speech, no offense Ike).  Here’s a photo of the schedule:

Smokejumper Base Dedication, 1954

This all left me with one question: what else was Eisenhower doing on September 22, 1954?  I get it—the President is pretty important—but Missoula seems like a far destination for a visit lasting less than an hour.  So, naturally, I looked up Eisenhower’s schedule on September 22 (which can be found at his Presidential Library or at UVA’s http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/documents/dde/diary).  What did I learn?  That it would be exhausting to be the President of the United States!  Here’s what he was up to:

Eisenhower September 22, 1954 Schedule 1Eisenhower September 22, 1954 Schedule 2

The following day, Eisenhower had an official breakfast at 7:50 am, after which he dedicated the McNary Dam in Oregon.

A couple more fun facts:

  • During its first summer in operation, the summer of 1955, the Missoula base supported a total of 126 jumps.
  • Smokejumping was invented in 1939.  That year might ring a bell for any movie buffs out there—it’s considered Hollywood’s greatest.  Gone with the Wind, the Wizard of Oz, Of Mice and Men, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington—those were just a few of the titles up for Best Picture.
  • Today, there are nine USFS bases scattered across the west.  Missoula is host to the largest, with about 70 smokejumpers working here now.

The Fort contains a huge amount of information on fighting fire in and around Missoula, including a corner of the current exhibition, Growing the Garden City, which details the earliest structural fire department (come check it out!).  And so I think I’ll dive into fire fighting for a while, soak up the history of Montana fires and allow you to do the same.  Stay tuned for a brief synopsis of my visit to the Smokejumper Center and a post about what it’s like to be a lookout!

It is fire season, after all.